CPU Mining: the Best CPU Models and How to Choose - Coin Post
Bitcoin Mining Xeon Phi - Last week I posted on my latest ...
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What is EPIC CASH? Epic Cash is the final point in the journey toward true P2P internet cash, the cornerstone of a private financial system. The Epic currency aims to become the world’s most effective privacy-protecting form of digital money. In order to fulfill that goal, it satisfies the three principal functions of money: 1. Store of Value — can be saved, retrieved, and exchanged at a later time, and of predictable value when retrieved; 2. Medium of Exchange — anything accepted as representing a standard of value and exchangeable for goods or services; 3. Unit of Account — the unit by which the value of a thing is accounted for and compared. Website: http://epic.tech Whitepapers: http://epic.tech/whitepaper Epic Cash Community: https://t.me/EpicCash Miner Chat: https://t.me/EpicMiners Gitlab: gitlab.com/epiccash Twitter: twitter.com/EpicCashTech Social Media: http://epic.tech/social-media Exchanges: https://epic.tech/service-list Oleg✌🏻 Hello community! Our AMA with EPIC begins🚀 We are very happy to have you here, on our joint AMA👌 So, lets start! The very first question for you. Can you introduce yourself? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble I’m Max Freeman, which stands for “Maximum Freedom for Mankind” — we believe that the existing fiat money system enslaves people by unfairly confiscating their wealth through inflation. By using an honest money system such as Epic, we can improve the quality of life for billions of people worldwide. Yoga Dude Hello, I am Yoga Dude 🙂 I handle Marketing and PR, in crypto since 2011 started as Bitcoin miner, and in 2014 in Monero, and in 2015 in Ethereum, oh and briefly in DOGE for fun and unexpected profit. Heard about Epic Cash while learning about the Mimblewimble algo and joined the team last year. JLong I am John, Doing the general engineering and managerial work Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble I have been involved in early stage cryptos for the past 3 years, after building a global trading business for the past 20 years. Oleg✌🏻 nice to meet you🙂 Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Epic is a decentralized community project like Bitcoin or Monero, there is no central authority or corporation involved. We had no ICO and no premine, we had a fair launch at 0 supply last September. Yoga Dude Great to meet everyone :) Oleg✌🏻 Here we go the 1st question for you ~ 1. What is Epic Cash about? Yoga Dude Epic Cash is designed to fulfill Satoshi’s original vision of P2P electronic cash, adjusting for what we learned from Bitcoin, a medium of exchange that is fast, free, open to all, while being private and fungible. We launched in September 2019 as a Proof of Work mineable crypto, without an ICO or a premine. Oleg✌🏻 Look like a real Bitcoin🙂 Yoga Dude with privacy and fungibility 😄 Oleg✌🏻 Sounds cool! move on to the next question… 2. What makes Epic Cash better than Monero or other privacy coins? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble First off, we have a lot of respect for Monero and other privacy coins, we learned a lot from what they did right and what they did wrong, Our blockchain is much lighter than Monero or Bitcoin, our transaction engine is faster than Monero or ZCash. We use a three mining algo approach to allow more users the ability to obtain Epic Cash. We are a new, highly undervalued, coin and we look great not only for future use but for today's investment. Our blockchain is 90+% smaller than Monero or Bitcoin. Coins such as Zcash have optional privacy. Epic makes all transactions private, and it is impossible to trace movements of coins by watching wallet addresses. Oleg✌🏻 Young and hot😋 security and privacy level is very important now but… 3. Why copy the same supply economics as Bitcoin? Yoga Dude It is hard to compete with the success of Bitcoin today, part of the elegance and the appeal of Bitcoin is the responsible emission rate, terminating at 21million highly sub dividable coins. Like the Bitcoin supply curve, Epic Cash encourages early adopters, and with subsequent halvenings maintains a gradually diminishing flow of additional currency while preserving the overall value. Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble In 2028, the supply of Epic matches that of Bitcoin and they stay in sync until the final coin is mined in 2140. We have 4 halvenings between now and then, which is demonstrated in Bitcoin to drive the value over market cycles. Epic is a chance for people who were late to Bitcoin to ride the wave and not miss their opportunity this time. Oleg✌🏻 Interesting! 4. Why Choose Epic Cash over Grin and Beam? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble First of all, we have tremendous respect for all Mimblewimble currencies and their talented teams, they all taught us a lot and we are thankful for that. Without sounding too contentious, the choice seems obvious. We offer the same core tech, but with a much more responsible emission curve — Grin is an endless fountain of emission and inflation (60 per second forever), and Beam is even more frontloaded outpacing even Grin’s aggressive emission schedule for the next several years… We respect Grin and Beam, we learned from them, and we believe we are the next evolutionary step. Additionally, as we mentioned earlier, we offer more ways to mine Epic Cash, both with GPU and CPU and ASICs, this gives us more potential users and miners, vs Grin and Beam that are only mineable with GPUs. Yoga Dude Yes, all that ☝️😄 Oleg✌🏻 I hope the miners read it all carefully 👌 Next question 5. Why have a development fund tax and what will it be used for? Yoga Dude Dev fund tax today is at a reasonable 7.77% dropping by 1.11% every year until it hits zero. As Epic Cash grows in value these funds will become increasingly more relevant in additional technical, marketing, and fintech partnerships developments. Oleg✌🏻 Very smart! 6. What is the advantage of 3 mining algorithms? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble By having multiple mining algorithms we are able to attract CPU, GPU, and ASIC miners simultaneously. Currently all other Mimblewimble currencies are mineable with GPU only ignoring a large segment of CPU miners. Monero made a splash migrating to the RandomX CPU mining algo. Epic Cash from the beginning embraces all mining communities. Many miners are successfully using older hardware such as Xeon processors to help secure the network. We use RandomX for CPU, ProgPow for GPU, and Cuckoo for ASIC. Longer term, our flexible architecture means we can have many algorithms, not just 3. Our roadmap includes an allocation for SHA3 Keccak, which will help further decentralize the network and keep it unstoppable. Yoga Dude We love miners 🙂 and Epic Cash can be mined with laptops and gaming rigs 🙂 Oleg✌🏻 A wide selection of mining methods is a great way to create a stable, decentralized and large network👌 Let’s talk about persons… 7. Who are the people developing Epic Cash? Yoga Dude We are blessed with a very talented team of skilled developers with diverse backgrounds, many of them are volunteers who believe in what Epic Cash stands for and contribute with product and usability innovation. Our teams main focus is to make Epic Cash the best, most secure, most user friendly and usable product on the market, without making it unnecessarily techie, with as much mainstream user appeal as possible. This is a serious challenge but we are up for it 😄 Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble It is also important to note that we are a truly open ecosystem that anyone can participate in. Our community has developed wallets, mining pools, educational content, and much else besides. We are not limited by the funding generated during an ICO or VC investment, our users are an essential element of our team. Oleg✌🏻 Sounds very attractive. 8. What do you think is currently lack in today’s crypto? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble We believe there is not enough privacy, anonymity and fungibility, although there is a growing awareness in the community as to why these are necessary. People are waking up to the fact that privacy is a right for everyone but today it is being exploited and violated by corporations, governments and unscrupulous individuals. Privacy does not mean that you have something to hide. We have doors on our houses, curtains on our windows, we wear clothes, and we have security on our bank accounts and businesses, not because we are criminals. Fungibility (the property of not being able to distinguish one unit of currency from another) also has become a hot issue as people have started to get in trouble because of someone else’s misdeeds. Tainted money (coins that are blacklisted or restricted) is a problem for Bitcoin and Ethereum, the top two cryptos today. Mimblewimble eliminates the risk of tainted coins making them indistinguishable from each other. With traceable coins, you always have to worry if the coins you are getting were involved in a hack, or perhaps the darknet. Oleg✌🏻 It’s good to see strong and safe coin in our time Let’s talk about your future… 9. What does the Epic Cash roadmap look like going forward? Yoga Dude First and foremost, we are focused on security and usability. We are working on a new, improved GUI wallet to incorporate the community feedback on ways to improve it. We are in the process of completing final testing phases for the next iteration of Epic Cash which will make it more secure and stable. Once that is done, we will be rolling out Android and iOS support to make Epic Cash usable on leading smartphones and smartwatches. Beyond that without going into too much detail we are focused on continuous evolution of privacy, ease of mining, and overall speed and usability. And of course we are constantly looking to add more exchanges both with and without KYC. Oleg✌🏻 Are you working on Android and IOS wallet ? What will your application be? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Yes, we will release a mobile wallet this year. It will bring us one step closer to people being able to actually use cryptocurrency as money in daily life. Yoga Dude The idea is to be able to access Epic Cash from any platform and device Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Epic is very lightweight, which means that low-end devices such as smartwatches can participate. Oleg✌🏻 Ok, got it. Thanks for clarification! 10. What else can you tell us about Epic Cash? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Well one thing I really want to mention is our great Epic Cash community. We’ve been building a decentralized community organically, without the talk of price pumps, pressure to HODL and other BS crypto-gimmicks. Our community is truly global and consists of developers, volunteers, miners, and other Epic enthusiasts spreading the word about Epic Cash, helping us reach millions of people around the world to improve their quality of life through social media and directly. Everyone is an evangelist, everyone is an influencer, everyone has the power to make the world a better place to live in. As we continue to grow — the future looks Epic 😊 Yoga Dude Definitely the community! We got a talented crowd of very cool and motivated people from all over the world! Oleg✌🏻 Thank you guys, for such informative answers 🙂 Now we proceed to Section 3, where a Community can ask their questions to the EPIC team Now I’ll open chat for the quite some time … Oleg✌🏻 Thank you all, dear community! EPIC team, please choose the 10 best questions you want to answer. AngeI Everyone likes Privacy & Epic Cash provides their Best Privacy to users But, Which Technologies are being used by Epic Cash to make Blockchain very Private and Completely untrackable ? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble From the wallet to the node, Epic uses Dandelion++ to bounce transactions around the world before they go into the mempool for mining. Within the blockchain itself, Cut-Through merges all transactions in a block together, with CoinJoin automatically mixing all coins. Beyond that, there are no addresses, so it’s impossible to watch someone’s wallet. Arnold Even litecoin is implementing mimblewimble, Don’t you think it’s a significant threat for Epic if they implement it, then why would anyone use a less popular and a new cryptocurrency. Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble LTC is implementing mw as an “extension block”, meaning that it is optional and not all transactions will use it. This is very different than the core protocol leveraging mw to make all transactions private and all coins fungible. Aluta Why Epic cash so much focus on fungibility? Does fungibility matters that much? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Fungibility is going to be one of the key issues within the cryptocurrency space in the coming years. Today, if you accept traceable coins from a seller, you are liable if they have ever been used in any illegal activity. This has led to a two tier market where freshly minted coins sell for more than circulated coins. When coins are fungible, like Epic, you don’t have to worry that you will run into a problem when an exchange or merchant blocks your transaction. Joxes It is a pleasure. When I first researched EpicCash, google showed me a youtube video that talked about how to mine with EpicCash. It made me ask: is this mining activity profitable so far? We are in the early stages of development I guess, what adoption strategies are you taking to have sustained growth? is it feasible to reach N ° 500 rank in coinmarketcap in the medium term? Yoga Dude When I got into crypto, it was by mining Bitcoin back in 2011 when you could still solve blocks on a single computer, but Bitcoin at the time was anything but profitable 😄 Today Epic Cash is still new, still young, and still undervalued. I believe it is mining-worthy because of its potential, not because of today’s price. By allowing Epic Cash to be mined with GPU and CPU on gaming rigs, servers, and even laptops we offer maximum public participation in our project. More people involved in the project, the more evangelists there are. We empower people to mine Epic Cash and to promote it. S.P.A.D.E What new features of Epic Cash provide that Grin or Beam does not offer. Why do we need Epic Cash? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble They are great coins, but there are some ways in which Epic improves. Epic has better tokenomics than Grin and a more sustainable model than Beam, that has a company behind it that needs to repay investors via its high dev tax. this article explains in more detail https://medium.com/@frodofreeman/overview-of-mimblewimble-cryptocurrencies-7c70be146f50 Sahil What’s the Minimum Hardware / setup Required for Mining of EPIC Cash coins? Is Mining Profitable and Can we Mine EPIC Cash coins at Home? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble It is possible to mine on an ordinary laptop or desktop from the last 5 years, sometimes older. Epic is open to everyone, and our friendly community is standing by to help you get started at t.me/epicminers Erven James Sato “TOKEN BURN” is BENEFECIAL for any projects, in able to CONTROL THE NUMBER OF TOKEN CIRCULATION and TO PROVIDE GREATER INCENTIVES TO INVESTORS. Does your GREAT PROJECT have plan about TOKEN BURN? Xenolink For deflating projects It is beneficial to drive the demand / scarcity / and price up in a faster pace. Epic Cash is here for the organic long run not the short run. However when it comes to long term economics elastic supplies whether inflating or deflating will not be a solid long term economic model. This has been heavily discussed already with Bitcoins inelastic Fixed 21 million supply in the past. Having a fixed model demonstrates good long term economics without worrying about balancing a deflating/inflating model. Bitcoin is a perfect example of a 21 million inelastic fixed supply model that has been proving itself till today. Which is why we are also using the same fixed 21 million supply model. Epic Cash plans to have a solid organic long term future to bring free private fungible money and make this world a better place. Red Z🔥🤙 No one predicted the COVID-19 pandemic while developing their business model. But the crisis and recession of the global economy is our present with you and it affects all sectors, including blockchain. Will you make or have already made changes to the project roadmap, tokenomics? Do you have a plan in case the situation does not improve in the coming months and will affect the crypto industry even more? Yoga Dude One thing we have seen as the result of the COVID-19 is more governments are talking about moving to digital cash — digital dollar in USA, digital Lira in Turkey, etc… If in the past the idea of digital money was not graspable by some people, today its the governments that are educating the people for us about the value of digital currency… What is ironic, the governments, by printing money to solve the economic consequences of COVID-19 also educating the consumer about the true “value” of fiat… What we offer is a touch free, borderless, private, anonymous, fungible currency that can not be printed beyond the initial defined algo. We are more responsible than the printing presses of the governments 🤔 kunlefighter How does the Dandelion++ Protocol, Confidential Transactions (CT) and CoinJoin assist in protecting the privacy of individuals and their transactions on Epic Cash Blockchain? Max Freeman | Epic Cash | Mimblewimble Dandelion++ bounces transactions around before committing them to the blockchain, making it impossible to determine where they originated from. Confidential Transactions means that all tx are private, you can’t tell anything about where the coins have been or who they belonged to. CoinJoin in essence melts down and re-mints each coin every time it is used, making it impossible to track their ownership or usage history. Epic provides comprehensive privacy to everyone, without the compromises that other pre-mimblewimble coins have. Dr Mönica Hello sir @maxfreeman4@Johnsstec@Yogadude Thanks for the ama I notice that Epic Cash has 2 type of new algorithm, progPoW version 0.15.0 and randomX version 1.0.3 NOW , CAN you tell me why you choose these 2 algorithm??? Yoga Dude We went with RandomX because it is a solid and very popular CPU centric algo used by several coins — most recently Monero. Most miners today heavily favor ASICs or GPUs, leaving a lot of solid high end users in the dust unable to mine emerging cryptos. As far as ProgPow, again its an established algo for GPU miners, and thanks to many cryptos starting with Bitcoin/Monero/Ethe etc there is no shortage of GPU rigs out there :) plus again the casual user with a video gaming caliber card can get in on the action. Oleg✌🏻Perfect!It was a great AMA, but it is coming to an end, thanks to everyone who was with us. Thanks EPIC team for taking the time👏. I hope our projects will be able to collaborate even more closely in the future and achieve new successes. Cheers!🎉
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I' ve been watching Monero concentrate hashpower and seeing the news reports on BotNets... Here's an idea.
I'm generally a Bitcoin guy, but I am outspoken on saying that PoW is all wrong and ASIC concentration has turned Bitcoin's miners into a functioning Cartel. I've always liked Monero too, basically because of the uncompromising focus on fungibility and privacy. Recently, however, I was annoyed to find an Opera browser window maxed my 8 processor Xeon system and learned it was a browser instance of unauthorized Monero mining. This led me to read some articles about botnets becoming a problem. That in turn lead me to look at your mining pools and see some concentration developing to the point where its a no-go, statistically, for individual users to CPU mine your crypto anymore. So here's my idea for your dev teams. I admit by the way that its what I am looking to see happen some day on bitcoin, so take that for whatever its worth. Still, the innovation of your PoW is that instead of being CPU bound, it creates a memory scratch pad that is more efficient to store than recreate for each hash and then calls a bunch of operations related to the scratch with dependent branches etc., with the result that its memory bound. One tweak would get you back out of GPU mining, and eliminate botnet and unauthorized web mining all at a single stroke. You would be back to 1 user CPU one vote: Add an XOR transform to the scratch pad (at the point after it is fully populated, right before the memory hard parts of Cryptonight) that is based on a mask determined by data from the block-chain. The location of the data would be mapped by the A and B values used by Cryptonight as determined right before the memory hard function. Basically the A and B numbers can be made into a function that specifies a specific block or range of blocks to read and use data looked up from the chain to create a msk for a transform of the scratch just before the memory hard loop function iterations. Basically this would add a requirement that to mine Monero, each instance of the mining process would need continuous fast access to storage of the entire block-chain. This would favor CPU based commodity machines with fast SSD drives. It would work with GPU mining, but adding too many GPUs would cause the speed to be rate limited by drive interface speed. You could use an SSD that plugs directly into PCIe, but at the expense of that kind of device. Making it more expensive to obtain lopsided hash power, you see. Now, sure, machines could CURRENTLY keep the entire block chain in RAM if you're talking a 64GB system for example, but again, it would not be long before adding mining instances would swamp the bus based on the number of blockchain data lookups. And ordinary growth of the blockchain would require further investments if that strategy (chain in ram) were to be adopted. Bonus: This would kill botnets because some random internet user will not have the blockchain, and botnets requesting the chain from other nodes could be blacklisted. IoT devices would not even be able to store the block chain. I suppose they could program their java miner code to fetch the information for the transform of the scratch required for each hash over the internet, but with internet latency the hash rate would be so low as to be useless and infeasible. For regular validation purposes, there would be one additional database fetch for the transform when validating blocks (i.e., that lookup from the blockchain and resulting scratch transform), but the real impact is that mining hash rate would go way down in terms of absolute hashes per second - although the input, output, memory and disk access reads would represent higher work per hash, with the valuable proof of blockchain storage addition. Cheers!
Can we talk about communication? Your miners are pissed.
As you can probably tell by now, the miners have been pretty upset since the announcement that MainNet would be launching. A lot of it is due to the communication of the project to the miners.
The pre-mine was pretty obnoxious. I know the devs don't want to call it a premine, but let's call it like it is. For days on end, two addresses held all BTM. One more address finally hit a block, but wealth distribution was widely in Bytom and Bitmain's favor. When questioned, devs said that a "few" miners were set up to test the network. The earliest anyone is set to receive a B3 is on Friday, 5/4. Bitmain will have been mining for at least 10 days before anybody else could touch the coin, with the exception of a pool in China who wrote a custom GPU miner (per bytom_Martin).
Devs knew that MainNet would launch with ASICs on them right away. The public knew that ASICs existed (that's why the coin exists), but didn't expect them at block 0. CPU mining on the wallet was even limited in number of threads (see this Issue on Github) to give the ASICs even more of an advantage. Since block 400, I have pointed five nodes with Xeon e5-2620s and couldn't manage to hit a single block. How can devs encourage the public to mine on CPU while they know the launch would be flooded with nearly 2,000 ASICs.
Bitmain's total stake
Bitmain is averaging about 800 blocks per day at this point, that's 330,360 BTM per day, or 3.3 million BTM by the time the first person receives a B3. That's around 1% of the total mineable supply in less than 10 days.
Release of discounted Batch 2 with fast shipping
Since there are only 2,500 units being shipped (per Bitmain's support), early adopters will surely have an advantage, right? No, because Bitmain released Batch 2 immediately following the first shipment of Batch 1 set to ship in as early as a week. Oh, and did I mention that Bitmain discounted them $865? I could see if the Batch 1 owners had a legitimately early start to discount the price so quickly, but most people who ordered Batch 1 didn't even have a shipment yet. Instead, we got the short end of the stick. There's no way we're mining $125 in BTM per day to compensate for the $865 price difference. Why would you allow your partner to hurt your early adopters like this? It speaks volumes about how this project has begun to unfold.
Only China gets refunds
So Chinese early adopters get pissed and even threaten Bitmain with committing suicide at their headquarters. Bitmain offers to refund them ~$628 USD within a month, but no mention to the other markets that were screwed over. Not even a peep. The miners even wanted to buy Batch 2, but won't do so without a coupon that can be 100% utilized on Batch 2. No response from Bitmain after hours, which isn't surprising.
Lack of pool support
As of this post, there are still no instructions on how to mine in a pool. I have personally asked and @mentioned devs at least four times to ask about pool mining, and how to connect the local wallet to a pool. Each time I was ignored, no matter the channel of communication that I used. I even opened up an issue on Github that did not receive a response.
Lack of general support
We've been asking for a way to view local hash rate for some time. In the release of 1.0.1, there was a new command, get-hash-rate, available to use. But this number doesn't seem to make any sense. It will fluctuate from 200KH/s to 1.3MH/s. I asked about this command's functionality on Discord and Telegram several times with no answer.
Lack of general information
Miners will hit people this week and there's still no information about the token swap. No idea if we should keep ERC20 tokens on exchanges, on a local wallet, or what. When asked, Bytom says to wait until more information is available and provides no other information. Meanwhile, we'll be mining a coin that we can't send to exchanges (if we can ever get information about how to connect to a pool). Not to mentioned the promised airdrop (which at 10 BTM per user is rather scant). We don't know how to be eligible for that either.
Claims that Bytom didn't know about Bitmain's plans
Staff claimed that they were surprised by Bitmain's move, yet the founder's news source, 8BTC literally reported on it. Why lie? I've mined a lot of coins at MainNet launch, and I mean a lot. But this has been one of the most unorganized and frustrating launches I have ever experienced - and that's saying a lot considering I mined Signatum when it launched. Check Discord, Telegram, and BitcoinTalk. Your community is pissed with your partnership and you're not listening.
The report produced by the fire block chain coins Institute, author: Yuan Yuming, Hu Zhiwei, PDF version please read the original text download Summary The Fire Coin Blockchain Application Research Institute conducts research on distributed ledger technology based on directed acyclic graph (DAG) data structure from a technical perspective, and through the specific technical test of typical representative project IOTA, the main research results are obtained:
Compared with the narrowblockchaintechnology,DAGtechnology has its own innovations. In theory, it can achieve high scalability and high decentralization without considering the evil situation. Therefore, there are some security risks.
DAGprojects tend to operate in a decentralized manner, which reduces the degree of decentralization to improve safety, but at the same time the transaction rate is not close to the theoretical limit.
Using a 40-node network based on VPS (CPU for PoW) to conduct a trading stress test on a representative project IOTA, it can be found that the TPS is very low: the optimal result that can be achieved is 4.19.
After analysis, its performance bottleneck is mainly based on the hardware implementation of the hardware itself.If you use other methods such as FPGA, you should further explore the performance potential of DAG.
At the same time, in order to maintain good transaction processing capabilities, a network of nodes of sufficient scale should be established.
Report body 1 Introduction Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology, and distributed ledger technology is not limited to the "blockchain" technology. In the wave of digital economic development, more distributed ledger technology is being explored and applied in order to improve the original technology and meet more practical business application scenarios. Directed Acylic Graph (hereinafter referred to as "DAG") is one of the representatives. What is DAG technology and the design behind it? What is the actual application effect?We attempted to obtain analytical conclusions through deep analysis of DAG technology and actual test runs of representative project IOTA. It should also be noted that the results of the indicator data obtained from the test are not and should not be considered as proof or confirmation of the final effect of the IOTA platform or project. Hereby declare. 2. Main conclusions After research and test analysis, we have the following main conclusions and technical recommendations:
Compared with the narrow blockchain technology, DAG technology has its own innovations. In theory, it can achieve high scalability and high decentralization without considering the evil situation. Therefore, there are some security risks.
DAG projects tend to operate in a decentralized manner, which reduces the degree of decentralization to improve safety, but at the same time the transaction rate is not close to the theoretical limit.
Using a 40-node network based on VPS (CPU for PoW) to conduct a trading stress test on a representative project IOTA, it can be found that the TPS is very low: the optimal result that can be achieved is 4.19.
After analysis, its performance bottleneck is mainly based on the hardware implementation of the hardware itself.If you use other methods such as FPGA, you should further explore the performance potential of DAG.
At the same time, in order to maintain good transaction processing capabilities, a network of nodes of sufficient scale should be established.
3.DAG Introduction 3.1. Introduction to DAG Principle DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) is a data structure that represents a directed graph, and in this graph, it cannot return to this point (no loop) from any vertex, as shown in the figure. Shown as follows: 📷 After the DAG technology-based distributed ledger (hereinafter referred to as DAG) technology has been proposed in recent years, many people think that it is hopeful to replace the blockchain technology in the narrow sense. Because the goal of DAG at design time is to preserve the advantages of the blockchain and to improve the shortcomings of the blockchain. Different from the traditional linear blockchain structure, the transaction record of the distributed ledger platform represented by IOTA forms a relational structure with a directed acyclic graph, as shown in the following figure. 📷 3.2. DAG characteristics Due to the different data structure from the previous blockchain, the DAG-based distributed ledger technology has the characteristics of high scalability, high concurrency and is suitable for IoT scenarios. 3.2.1. High scalability, high concurrency The data synchronization mechanism of traditional linear blockchains (such as Ethereum) is synchronous, which may cause network congestion. The DAG network adopts an asynchronous communication mechanism, allowing concurrent writing. Multiple nodes can simultaneously trade at different tempos without having a clear sequence. Therefore, the data of the network may be inconsistent at the same time, but it will eventually be synchronized.
3.2.2. Applicable to IoT scenarios
In the traditional blockchain network, there are many transactions in each block. The miners are packaged and sent uniformly, involving multiple users. In the DAG network, there is no concept of “block”, the smallest unit of the network. It is a "transaction", each new transaction needs to verify the first two transactions, so the DAG network does not need miners to pass the trust, transfer does not require a fee, which makes DAG technology suitable for small payments. 4. Analysis of technical ideas Trilemma, or "trilemma", means that in a particular situation, only two of the three advantageous options can be selected or one of the three adverse choices must be chosen. This type of selection dilemma has related cases in various fields such as religion, law, philosophy, economics, and business management.Blockchain is no exception. The impossible triangle in the blockchain is: Scalability, Decentralization, and Security can only choose two of them. If you analyze DAG technology according to this idea, according to the previous introduction, then DAG has undoubtedly occupied the two aspects of decentralization and scalability. The decentralization and scalability of the DAG can be considered as two-sided, because of the asynchronous accounting features brought about by the DAG data structure, while achieving the high degree of decentralization of the participating network nodes and the scalability of the transaction. 5. There is a problem Since the characteristics of the data structure bring decentralization and scalability at the same time, it is speculated that the security is a hidden danger according to the theory of impossible triangles. But because DAG is a relatively innovative and special structure, can it be more perfect to achieve security? This is not the case from the actual results. 5.1. Double flower problem The characteristics of DAG asynchronous communication make it possible for a double-flower attack. For example, an attacker adds two conflicting transactions (double spending) at two different locations on the network, and the transactions are continuously forward-checked in the network until they appear on the verification path of the same transaction, and the network discovers the conflict. At this time, the common ancestor nodes that the two transactions are gathered together can determine which transaction is a double-flower attack. If the trading path is too short, there will be a problem like "Blowball": when most transactions are "lazy" in extreme cases, only the early trading, the trading network will form a minority. Early transactions are the core central topology. This is not a good thing for DAGs that rely on ever-increasing transactions to increase network reliability. Therefore, at present, for the double flower problem, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the actual situation for design. Different DAG networks have their own solutions. 5.2. Shadow chain problem Due to the potential problem of double flowers, when an attacker can build a sufficient number of transactions, it is possible to fork a fraudulent branch (shadow chain) from the real network data, which contains a double flower transaction, and then this The branch is merged into the DAG network, and in this case it is possible for this branch to replace the original transaction data. 6. Introduction to the current improvement plan At present, the project mainly guarantees safety by sacrificing the native characteristics of some DAGs. The IOTA project uses the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to solve this problem. The IOTA introduces the concept of Cumulative Weight for transactions to record the number of times the transaction has been cited in order to indicate the importance of its transaction. The MCMC algorithm selects the existing transactions in the current network as a reference for the newly added transactions by weighting the random weights of the accumulated weights. That is, the more referenced the transaction path, the easier it is to be selected by the algorithm. The walk strategy has also been optimized in version 1.5.0 to control the "width" of the transaction topology to a reasonable range, making the network more secure. However, at the beginning of the platform startup, due to the limited number of participating nodes and transactions, it is difficult to prevent a malicious organization from sending a large number of malicious transactions through a large number of nodes to cause the entire network to be attacked by the shadow chain. Therefore, an authoritative arbitration institution is needed to determine the validity of the transaction. In IOTA, this node is a Coordinator, which periodically snapshots the current transaction data network (Tangle); the transactions contained in the snapshot are confirmed as valid transactions. But Coordinator doesn't always exist. As the entire network runs and grows, IOTA will cancel the Coordinator at some point in the future. The Byteball improvement program features its design for the witness and the main chain. Because the structure of DAG brings a lot of transactions with partial order, and to avoid double flowers, it is necessary to establish a full order relationship for these transactions to form a transaction backbone. An earlier transaction on the main chain is considered a valid transaction.Witnesses, who are held by well-known users or institutions, form a main chain by constantly sending transactions to confirm other user transactions. The above scheme may also bring different changes to the platform based on the DAG structure. Taking IOTA as an example, because of the introduction of Coordinator, the decentralization characteristics are reduced to some extent. 7. Actual operation 7.1. Positive effects In addition to solving security problems, the above solutions can also solve the smart contract problem to some extent. Due to the two potential problems caused by the native features of DAG: (1) The transaction duration is uncontrollable. The current mechanism for requesting retransmission requires some complicated timeout mechanism design on the client side, hoping for a simple one-time confirmation mechanism. (2) There is no global sorting mechanism, which results in limited types of operations supported by the system. Therefore, on the distributed ledger platform based on DAG technology, it is difficult to implement Turing's complete intelligent contract system. In order to ensure that the smart contract can run, an organization is needed to do the above work. The current Coordinator or main chain can achieve similar results. 7.2. Negative effects As one of the most intuitive indicators, DAG's TPS should theoretically be unlimited. If the maximum TPS of the IOTA platform is compared to the capacity of a factory, then the daily operation of TPS is the daily production of the plant. For the largest TPS, the April 2017 IOTA stress test showed that the network had transaction processing capabilities of 112 CTPS and 895 TPS. This is the result of a small test network consisting of 250 nodes. For the daily operation of TPS, from the data that is currently publicly available, the average TPS of the main network in the near future is about 8.2, and the CTPS (the number of confirmed transactions per second) is about 2.7. 📷 The average average TPS of the test network is about 4, and the CTPS is about 3. 📷 Data source discord bot: generic-iota-bot#5760 Is this related to the existence of Coordinator? Actual testing is needed to further demonstrate. 8. Measured analysis The operational statistics of the open test network are related to many factors.For further analysis, we continue to use the IOTA platform as an example to build a private test environment for technical measurement analysis. 8.1. Test Architecture The relationship between the components we built this test is shown below. 📷 among them:
In order to avoid the impact of other factors on the main network or test network on the test results, we built a 40-node small private IOTA test network. The build process refers to the "Private IOTA Testnet" project (https://github.com/schierlm/private-iota-testnet.git) and updates the IRI (IOTA Reference Implementation) version used in it to the latest v1.5.0 release. In addition, during the test, the Coordinator simulation tool provided by the tool is used to periodically generate snapshots to confirm the transaction.
Use Python-based open source load testing tool Locust (https://locust.io/) to control the sending of transaction data. After the test is started, the transaction data is randomly sent to the nodes in all private networks.
When the node is started, the "--zmq-enabled" parameter is added to start the ZeroMQ support of the IOTA, and the transaction data obtained by the node is sent to the observing end through the message queue. Use the ZeroMQ event parsing script (https://github.com/lunfardo314/tps\_zmq.git) on the observing side to observe the node transaction data.
8.2. Testing the hardware environment The server uses Amazon AWS EC2 C5.4xlarge: 16 core 3GHz, Intel Xeon Platinum 8124M CPU, 32GB memory, 10Gbps LAN network between servers, communication delay (ping) is less than 1ms, operating system is Ubuntu 16.04. 8.3. Test scenarios and results analysis
8.3.1. Default PoW Difficulty Value
Although there is no concept such as “miners”, the IOTA node still needs to prove the workload before sending the transaction to avoid sending a large number of transactions to flood the network. The Minimum Weight Magnitude is similar to Bitcoin. The result of PoW should be the number of digits of "9", 9 of which is "000" in the ternary used by IOTA. The IOTA difficulty value can be set before the node is started. Currently for the production network, the difficulty value of the IOTA is set to 14; the test network is set to 9. Therefore, we first use the test network's default difficulty value of 9 to test, get the following test results. 📷 Since each IOTA's bundle contains multiple transfers, the actual processed TPS will be higher than the send rate. But by executing the script that parses zmq, it can be observed that the current TPS is very low. Another phenomenon is that the number of requests that can be sent successfully per second is also low. After analysis, the reason is that the test uses VPS, so in PoW, the CPU is mainly used for calculation, so the transaction speed is mainly affected by the transmission speed.
8.3.2. Decrease the PoW difficulty value
Re-test the difficulty value to 1 and get the following results. 📷 As can be seen from the results, TPS will increase after the difficulty is reduced. Therefore, the current TPS of the IOTA project does not reach the bottleneck where the Coordinator is located, but mainly because of the hardware and network of the client itself that sends the transaction. The IOTA community is currently working on the implementation of FPGA-based Curl algorithm and CPU instruction set optimization. Our test results also confirm that we can continue to explore the performance potential of the DAG platform in this way.
Estimating the marginal cost of a transaction on the Bitcoin (Cash) network
Recently, the mempool has not been clearing with every block found. Should we immediately raise the block-size? Perhaps put plans to make the easy relay of sub satoshi/byte transaction on hold? Assumptions:
The marginal cost is made up of: hard-drive space (replicated world-wide), bandwidth relaying (also world wide -- partial fixed cost?)
Expanding the UTXO set incurs a further penalty, based on the price of RAM.
Mature network needs about 1000 mining nodes world-wide. Further, these mining nodes avoid the "tragedy of the commons" problem by charging a proportionally higher fee if they are less likely to get a block.
The following are fixed costs: Hashing equipment and maintenance, Space rental, electric, cooling, staff, etc.
I will neglect the CPU time required to validate a transaction since I have no good way to estimate that.
Assuming 1 CAD is 80 cents USD
Based on this discussion thread I am going to assume 8GB blocks to approximate the limit as the number of transactions go to infinity. Note: Chassis I chose only supports 300TB after parity.
Step 1: find the price of storing a transaction Searching NCIX:
As you can see. miners have a strong incentive to offer free UTXO consolidation transactions: and require bulk UTXO fanning transaction to pay a fee of 494.86sat/kB -- about 0.5 sat/byte. ((0.01249USD/kB)/(2523.96USD/BCH)*100,000,000sat/BCH) Fees are no where near that high due to the block subsidy. For an 8MB block: 1,250,000,000 satoshies/ 8000 kB -> 156,250sat/kB; or more conventionally: 157satosies/byte.. Note that the block subsidy per kB goes down with larger block-sizes. Step 2: Estimate Bandwidth costs Disclaimer: I am not too familiar with commercial bandwidth plans
According to slide 19 on this PDF document, you should be able to get IP transit for less than $10/Mbps in major cities (10GB-ethernet pricing).
Let's assume you budget 1Gbps of IP transit for your full node. You are also sharing with at least 8 peers. -> $10,000 USD/month
8GB blocks work out to 34.560TB/month x8 -> 276TB/month
That implies a utilization of: 64GB/600s*10bits/byte -> 1.066 Gbps -> we need a 10Gbps connection.
Cost Per kB: ($100,000/month)/(34.560TB/month)/(1,000,000,000kB/TB) -> 2.89 microdollars/kB (rounding error, unless I messed up the math)
Edit: If we assume the miners average their costs (like earlier) x1000: 2.89Mills/kB (57x the storage costs)
Exercise to the reader: Re-do these calculations for hobbyist hardware and internet connections. You probably have to assume a smaller block size: such as 100MB. Disclaimer: I later learned the site I was using for prices (NCIX) was bankrupt. Not sure how much that would skew prices.
Can someone please assist me, I have 15 machines cpu mining for cryptonight, all are xeons and 2 i7. I was banned last week for 3 days with the reason being "Please note that if your miner does not send any share in 5 minutes then your connection will be temporary blocked" After this 3 day ban all my miners started back working just fine making even more $ (I assume cryptonight went up) After just 1 day of mining I assume I am banned again, I say assume because I emailed nicehash support with no reply. I am getting the same "SOCKET ERROR - RECEIVE error:" I removed the 2 i7 after the ban because they had the lowest hash rate, I was mining for over a month with no issues. Can someone advise me? I am very close to my .01 Bitcoin minimum payment and if I can't mine I won't get the money they owe me. Public IP - 188.8.131.52 Bitcoin address - 1KouWYg7jxLRMrxvqvqZyAMve4HH2sriUV Current miner - v184.108.40.206 (updated all that showed and update) Preferred Server - USA - San Jose Algorithm - CryptoNight
Hello, BTC aficionados! (I've already posting this to /BitcoinMining, but I do simply want to cover my bases). I manage a render farm for a VFX studio. We're going to be going into a bit of a slow time with a lack of a production to significantly use our current farm resources in about 2 months and will potentially last until the fall. I've been tasked to investigate ways for us to utilize (or not utilize) our farm power and present the ways to our CTO. One such option I'm going to be researching is to turn our farm into a dynamic digital currency miner, either standalone or part of a pool. While I realize in my short time researching, that ASIC devices outclass CPU an GPU for BTC mining, I'm wondering if btc/altcoin mining is still a somewhat viable option. During this period, the make up of our farm will be roughly 500 dual Ivy Bridge hexacore xeon blades (24 logical cores with HT) with 48GB of RAM a piece (30 of which have Tesla GPUs for playblasting/houdini sims). Does anyone have any good reference calculators so that I can input our overhead for power and cooling? Does anyone have any references or contacts of other studios that have tried to turn to mining? Basically, any information you can throw at me or point me in the right direction with minimal effort will help my research effort greatly. Thanks a ton!
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